Organ: Thyroid gland

Thyroid gland: Hormone gland in the neck around the trachea
Introduction: The thyroid is a small gland in the neck that takes up iodine from the body to produce hormones that help control the body's metabolism, and regulate how quickly the body should work and use energy.1

The thyroid is a gland in the neck. It has two kinds of cells that make hormones. Follicular cells make thyroid hormone, which affects heart rate, body temperature, and energy level. C cells make calcitonin, a hormone that helps control the level of calcium in the blood.

The thyroid is shaped like a butterfly and lies at the front of the neck, beneath the voice box (larynx). It has two parts, or lobes. The two lobes are separated by a thin section called the isthmus.

A healthy thyroid is a little larger than a quarter. It usually cannot be felt through the skin. A swollen lobe might look or feel like a lump in the front of the neck. A swollen thyroid is called a goiter. Most goiters are caused by not enough iodine in the diet. Iodine is a substance found in shellfish and iodized salt.2

Condition count: 14 ; see list below.
Organ types: Endocrine system (90), Hormonal system (90)
Produces: thyroxine (T4), tri-iodothyronine (T3), calcitonin
Related organs: neck (43), trachea (5), parathyroid glands (0)
Main condition: Thyroid disorders
Organs: all organs

Diseases list: The following list of medical conditions have 'Thyroid gland' or similar listed as an affected body part in our database:


  • Autoimmune thyroid diseases ... thyroid


  • Goiter ... thyroid
  • Graves Disease ... thyroid


  • Hashimoto's Thyroiditis ... thyroid
  • Hyperthyroidism ... thyroid
  • Hypothyroidism ... thyroid


  • Iodine deficiency ... thyroid


  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia ... thyroid
  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 ... thyroid
  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 3 ... thyroid
  • Myxedema ... thyroid


  • Thyroid cancer ... thyroid
  • Thyroid disorders ... thyroid
  • Thyroiditis ... thyroid

    1. excerpt from Thyroid Disease: NWHIC
    2. excerpt from What You Need To Know About Thyroid Cancer: NCI

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