Basic Summary for HIV/AIDS


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Main name of condition: HIV/AIDS
Other names or spellings: AIDS, HIV, human immunodeficiency virus, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, acquired immune deficiency syndrome


What is HIV/AIDS?
  Brief description of HIV/AIDS: HIV is a sexually transmitted virus and AIDS is the progressive immune failure that HIV causes.
  Parent types of HIV/AIDS: Viral diseases, Immune disorders, Immune deficiency conditions, Adolescent conditions, Under-diagnosed conditions, Diseases contagious from sex, Diseases contagious from oral sex, Diseases contagious from anal sex, Diseases contagious from intravenous needles, Diseases contagious from blood, Diseases contagious from vaginal sex, Diseases contagious contagious mother-to-fetus, Diseases contagious during childbirth, Diseases contagious from kissing
How many people get HIV/AIDS?
  Prevalance of HIV/AIDS: 900,000 Americans (NIAID, quarter are unaware)
  Prevalance Rate of HIV/AIDS: approx 1 in 302 or 0.33% or 900,000 people in USA [about data]
  Incidence (annual) of HIV/AIDS: approximately 40,000 annual cases in USA (NIAID)
  Incidence Rate of HIV/AIDS: approx 1 in 6,800 or 0.01% or 40,000 people in USA [about data]
  Undiagnosed prevalence of HIV/AIDS: estimated 225,000 Americans (based on NIAID 900,000 prevalence with quarter undiagnosed).
  Undiagnosed prevalence rate of HIV/AIDS: approx 1 in 1,208 or 0.08% or 225,000 people in USA [about data]
  Worldwide prevalence:40 million worldwide with HIV/AIDS 2003 (Report on the Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic, UNAIDS, 2002); 36.1 million cases worldwide (CBCF Health Organisation, 2004)
  Prevalance of HIV/AIDS: From the beginning of the epidemic through the end of 1998, 5,237 American children under age 13 had been reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as living with HIV/AIDS.1 ... More than 700,000 cases of AIDS have been reported in the United States since 1981, and as many as 900,000 Americans may be infected with HIV.2 ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimate that 850,000 to 950,000 U.S. residents are living with HIV infection, one-quarter of whom are unaware of their infection.3 ... In the United States, 641,086 cases of AIDS had been reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as of Dec.4
  Incidence of HIV/AIDS: Approximately 40,000 new HIV infections occur each year in the United States, about 70 percent among men and 30 percent among women. Of these newly infected people, half are younger than 25 years of age.3
Who gets HIV/AIDS?
  Patient Profile for HIV/AIDS: Typically young adults, half younger than 25.
  Gender Profile for HIV/AIDS: 70% men, 30% women.
  Gender Profile for HIV/AIDS: As of June 2000, 124,911 adolescent and adult women in the United States were reported as having AIDS. The proportion of reported U.S. AIDS cases occurring among women increased from 7 percent to 23 percent from 1985 to 1998. This proportion remained at 23 percent in 1999, possibly reflecting the success of antiretroviral therapies in preventing the development of AIDS. 5
  Race Profile for HIV/AIDS: The epidemic is growing most rapidly among minority populations and is a leading killer of African-American males. According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), AIDS affects nearly seven times more African Americans than whites and three times more Hispanics than whites (CDC HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report, Vol. 12, 2000).2
How serious is HIV/AIDS?
  Prognosis of HIV/AIDS: The prognosis for individuals with AIDS in recent years has improved significantly because of new drugs and treatments, and educational and preventive efforts. 6
  Average life years lost for HIV/AIDS: 35.7 years (SEER); 37.9 for HIV in North Carolina7.
  Deaths for HIV/AIDS: 15,245 deaths in 2000 (NIAID); 14,802 deaths reported in USA 1999 (NVSR Sep 2001)
  Complications of HIV/AIDS: see complications of HIV/AIDS
What causes HIV/AIDS?
  Causes of HIV/AIDS: AIDS is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). By killing or damaging cells of the body's immune system, HIV progressively destroys the body's ability to fight infections and certain cancers. People diagnosed with AIDS may get life-threatening diseases called opportunistic infections, which are caused by microbes such as viruses or bacteria that usually do not make healthy people sick. 2
  Class of Condition for HIV/AIDS: viral
  Causes of HIV/AIDS: see causes of HIV/AIDS
  Risk factors for HIV/AIDS: see risk factors for HIV/AIDS
What are the symptoms of HIV/AIDS?
  Incubation period for HIV/AIDS: 1-2 months (for the early flu-like HIV illness); typically years or decades for progression to AIDS (2 years for children)
  Symptoms of HIV/AIDS: see symptoms of HIV/AIDS
Can anyone else get HIV/AIDS?
  Contagion of HIV/AIDS: Spread by unprotected sex, oral sex, anal sex, heterosexual sex, blood exposure, transplacental contagion, childbirth transmission, breastfeeding. Not by saliva or kissing. Not by casual contact or touching. Not by clothing, food, or utensils. Not from public toilets or swimming pools. Not by insect bites.
  More information: see contagiousness of HIV/AIDS
How is it treated?
  Treatments for HIV/AIDS: see treatments for HIV/AIDS
  Prevention of HIV/AIDS: see prevention of HIV/AIDS
  Research for HIV/AIDS: see research for HIV/AIDS
Society issues for HIV/AIDS
  Costs of HIV/AIDS: approximately $6.7 billion in 1994 (NIAID)
  Costs of HIV/AIDS: In 1994, the total cost of sexually transmitted HIV infection in the United States was approximately $6.7 billion.4

Cost statistics for HIV/AIDS: The following are statistics from various sources about costs and HIV/AIDS:

  • 2% of GDP in Africa (CBCF Health Organisation, 2004)
  • $165 million in Africa (CBCF Health Organisation, 2004)

  Hospitalization statistics for HIV/AIDS: The following are statistics from various sources about hospitalizations and HIV/AIDS:
  • 185,000 patients were discharged with HIV in the US 2001 (Health, United States, 2003, NCHS, CDC)
  • HIV patients had an average length of stay in hospitals of 7.8 days in the US 2001 (Health, United States, 2003, NCHS, CDC)
  • 0.04% (4,589) of hospital episodes were for HIV in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • 79% of hospital consultations for HIV required hospital admission in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • 69% of hospital episodes for HIV were for men in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • 31% of hospital episodes for HIV were for women in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • 44% of hospital admissions for HIV required emergency hospital admission in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • 15.7 days was the mean length of stay in hospitals for HIV in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • 8 days was the median length of stay in hospitals for HIV in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • 38 was the mean age of patients hospitalised for HIV in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • 83% of hospitalisations for HIV occurred in 15-59 year olds in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • 1% of hospitalisations for HIV occurred in people over 75 in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • 28% of hospitalisations for HIV were single day episodes in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • 0.07% (36,355) of hospital bed days were for HIV in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • Hospitalization statistics in Australia:
    • 0.01% (263) of hospital episodes were for HIV in public hospitals in Australia 2001-02 (Australian Hospital Data, AIHW, Australia, 2001-02)
    • 24% of hospitalisations for HIV were single day episodes in public hospitals in Australia 2001-02 (Australian Hospital Data, AIHW, Australia, 2001-02)
    • 96% of hospitalisations in public hospitals for HIV were by public patients in Australia 2001-02 (Australian Hospital Data, AIHW, Australia, 2001-02)
    • 4% of hospitalisations in public hospitals for HIV were by private patients in Australia 2001-02 (Australian Hospital Data, AIHW, Australia, 2001-02)
    • Hospitalisations for HIV at public hospitals occurred in 0.1 people per 10,000 population in Australia 2001-02 (Australian Hospital Data, AIHW, Australia, 2001-02)
    • 12.9 days was the mean length of stay in hospitals for HIV in public hospitals in Australia 2001-02 (Australian Hospital Data, AIHW, Australia, 2001-02)
    • Excluding same day episodes, 16.6 days was the mean length of stay in public hospitals for HIV in Australia 2001-02 (Australian Hospital Data, AIHW, Australia, 2001-02)
    • 0.0004% (10) of private hospital episodes were for HIV in Australia 2001-02 (Australian Hospital Data, AIHW, Australia, 2001-02)
    • 0% of hospitalisations in private hospitals for HIV were single day episodes in Australia 2001-02 (Australian Hospital Data, AIHW, Australia, 2001-02)
    • 20% of hospitalisations in private hospitals in private hospitals for HIV were by public patients in Australia 2001-02 (Australian Hospital Data, AIHW, Australia, 2001-02)
    • 80% of hospitalisations in private hospitals for HIV were by private patients in Australia 2001-02 (Australian Hospital Data, AIHW, Australia, 2001-02)
    • Hospitalisations in private hospitals for HIV occurred in 0.01 people per 10,000 population in Australia 2001-02 (Australian Hospital Data, AIHW, Australia, 2001-02)
    • 12.7 days was the mean length of stay in private hospitals for HIV in Australia 2001-02 (Australian Hospital Data, AIHW, Australia, 2001-02)
    • Excluding same day episodes, 12.7 days was the mean length of stay in private hospitals for HIV in Australia 2001-02 (Australian Hospital Data, AIHW, Australia, 2001-02)


Footnotes:
1. excerpt from Backgrounder - HIV Infection in Infants and Children: NIAID
2. excerpt from HIV Infection and AIDS, An Overview, NIAID Fact Sheet: NIAID
3. excerpt from HIV-AIDS Statistics, NIAID Fact Sheet: NIAID
4. excerpt from Sexually Transmitted Diseases Statistics, NIAID Fact Sheet: NIAID
5. excerpt from HIV Infection in Women, NIAID Fact Sheet: NIAID
6. excerpt from NINDS Neurological Manifestations of AIDS Information Page: NINDS
7. Years of Potential Life Lost in North Carolina, NCMJ March/April 2002, Volume 63, Number 2

Last revision: April 2, 2003

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