Complications of Type 2 diabetes
|About complications: Complications of Type 2 diabetes are secondary conditions, symptoms, or other disorders that are caused by Type 2 diabetes. In many cases the distinction between symptoms of Type 2 diabetes and complications of Type 2 diabetes is unclear or arbitrary.|
Complications list for Type 2 diabetes: The list of complications that have been mentioned in various sources for Type 2 diabetes includes:
- Short-term complications
- Hypoglycemia - does not occur from diabetes itself but from the treatments for diabetes (pills or insulin).
- Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Nonketotic Syndrome (HHNS) - a dangerous syndrome from high blood sugars; typically in Type 2 diabetics at diagnosis or non-compliant to treatment.
- Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) - a dangerous condition due to high blood sugars; typically in Type 1 diabetics at diagnosis or non-compliant to treatment.
- Diabetic lens - vision distortions from high blood sugars; usually reverses when sugars controlled.
- Hyperinsulemia - insulin in the blood rises due to insulin resistance.
- Kidney complications (see Kidney symptoms)
- Eye complications (see Eye symptoms)
- Foot complications (see Foot symptoms)
- Neuropathy - various nerve complications affecting different parts of the body:
- Diabetic neuropathy
- Peripheral neuropathy
- Distal symmetrical polyneuropathy (type of Neuropathy)
- Hand neuropathy
- Autonomic neuropathy
- Sexual neuropathy
- Vaginal dryness
- Eye neuropathy
- Bladder neuropathy (type of Neuropathy)
- Vascular neuropathy - blood vessel neuropathy
- Sweat gland neuropathy (type of Neuropathy)
- Balance problems (see Dizziness)
- Breathing problems
- Cranial Mononeuropathy (type of Neuropathy)
- Radiculopathy (type of Neuropathy) - affecting roots of the spinal nerves.
- Proximal Motor Neuropathy (Diabetic Amyotrophy) (type of Neuropathy)
- Digestive complications (see Digestive symptoms)
- Heart complications (see Heart symptoms)
- Cerebrovascular disease
- Pregnancy-related mother complications of diabetes (see Pregnancy symptoms)
- Toxemia of pregnancy - a higher risk of toxemia than non-diabetic pregnancies.
- Pregnancy-related baby complications of diabetes (see Pregnancy symptoms)
- Dental complications (see Dental symptoms)
- Acanthosis nigricans
- See also complications of insulin resistence
- See also complications of diabetes
Complications of Type 2 diabetes: The retina is the light-sensing tissue at the back of the eye. According to the National Eye Institute, one of the National Institutes of Health, as many as 24,000 persons with diabetes lose their sight each year. In the United States, diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness in adults under age 65.1
Complications of diabetes Heart disease
- Heart disease is the leading cause of diabetes-related deaths. Adults with diabetes have heart disease death rates about 2 to 4 times as high as those of adults without diabetes.
- The risk of stroke is 2 to 4 times higher in people with diabetes.
- An estimated 60 to 65 percent of people with diabetes have high blood pressure.
- Diabetes is the leading cause of new cases of blindness in adults 20 to 74 years old.
- Diabetic retinopathy causes from 12,000 to 24,000 new cases of blindness each year.
- Diabetes is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease, accounting for about 40 percent of new cases.
- 27,851 people with diabetes developed end-stage renal disease in 1995.
- In 1995, a total of 98,872 people with diabetes underwent dialysis or kidney transplantation.
- About 60 to 70 percent of people with diabetes have mild to severe forms of nervous system damage (which often includes impaired sensation or pain in the feet or hands, slowed digestion of food in the stomach, carpal tunnel syndrome, and other nerve problems).
- Severe forms of diabetic nerve disease are a major contributing cause of lower extremity amputations.
- More than half of lower limb amputations in the United States occur among people with diabetes.
- From 1993 to 1995, about 67,000 amputations were performed each year among people with diabetes.
- Periodontal disease (a type of gum disease that can lead to tooth loss) occurs with greater frequency and severity among people with diabetes. Periodontal disease has been reported to occur among 30 percent of people age 19 years or older with type 1 diabetes.
- The rate of major congenital malformations in babies born to women with preexisting diabetes varies from 0 to 5 percent among women who receive preconception care to 10 percent among women who do not receive preconception care.
- Between 3 and 5 percent of pregnancies among women with diabetes result in death of the newborn; the rate for women who do not have diabetes is 1.5 percent.
- Diabetes can directly cause acute life-threatening events, such as diabetic ketoacidosis* and hyperosmolar nonketotic coma.*
- People with diabetes are more susceptible to many other illnesses. For example, they are more likely to die of pneumonia or influenza than people who do not have diabetes.
High blood sugar and high blood pressure from diabetes can hurt four parts of your eye:
- Retina (REH-ti-nuh). The retina is the lining at the back of
the eye. The retina's job is to sense light coming into the eye.
- Vitreous (VIH-tree-us). The vitreous is a jelly-like fluid
that fills the back of the eye.
- Lens. The lens is at the front of the eye and it focuses
light on the retina.
- Optic nerve. The optic nerve is the eye's main nerve to the brain.
Having high blood sugar for many years can damage the blood vessels that bring oxygen to some nerves. High blood sugar can also hurt the covering on the nerves. Damaged nerves may stop sending messages. Or they may send messages too slowly or at the wrong times.
Diabetic neuropathy (ne-ROP-uh-thee) is the medical name for damage to the nervous system from diabetes. 4
People with diabetes can have tooth and gum problems more often if their blood sugar stays high. High blood sugar can make tooth and gum problems worse. You can even lose your teeth. 5
Complications of Type 2 diabetes: medical news summaries: The following medical news items are relevant to complications of Type 2 diabetes:
1. excerpt from Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT): NIDDK
2. excerpt from Diabetes Statistics in the United States: NIDDK
3. excerpt from Keep your eyes healthy: NIDDK
4. excerpt from Keep your nervous system healthy: NIDDK
5. excerpt from Keep your teeth and gums healthy: NIDDK
Last revision: April 10, 2003
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