Basic Summary for Type 2 diabetes


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Main name of condition: Type 2 diabetes
Other names or spellings: Type II Diabetes, Adult Diabetes, Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus, NIDDM, Stable Diabetes, Ketosis-resistent diabetes


What is Type 2 diabetes?
  Brief description of Type 2 diabetes: Most common diabetes in adults, usually progressing slowly, mostly treated without insulin at diagnosis.
  Parent types of Type 2 diabetes: Diabetes, Pancreas conditions, Under-diagnosed conditions
  Organs Affected by Type 2 diabetes: pancreas
How many people get Type 2 diabetes?
  Prevalance of Type 2 diabetes: 16 million Americans (NWHIC, includes undiagnosed); 7.2 million (actually diagnosed)
  Prevalance Rate of Type 2 diabetes: approx 1 in 17 or 5.88% or 16 million people in USA [about data]
  Incidence (annual) of Type 2 diabetes: approximately 798,000 new cases of diabetes annually in USA, most are Type 2 diabetes (CDC-OC)
  Incidence Rate of Type 2 diabetes: approx 1 in 340 or 0.29% or 798,000 people in USA [about data]
  Worldwide prevalence:150 million cases worldwide 2002(Integrated Management of Cardiovascular Risk Report of a WHO Meeting, 2002)
  Incidence of Type 2 diabetes: New cases diagnosed per year: 798,000. 1
Who gets Type 2 diabetes?
  Patient Profile for Type 2 diabetes: Typically adults over 40, but recently occurring more commonly in overweight teens.
  Profile for Type 2 diabetes: Type 2 diabetes is more common in older people, especially in people who are overweight, and occurs more often in African Americans, American Indians, Asian and Pacific Islander Americans, and Hispanic Americans. On average, non-Hispanic African Americans are 1.7 times more likely to have diabetes than non-Hispanic whites of the same age. Hispanic Americans are nearly twice as likely to have diabetes as non-Hispanic whites. American Indians have the highest rates of diabetes in the world. Among the Pima Indians living in Arizona, for example, half of all adults have type 2 diabetes. 2
  Gender Profile for Type 2 diabetes: Approximately equally in men and women.
How serious is Type 2 diabetes?
  Complications of Type 2 diabetes: see complications of Type 2 diabetes
What causes Type 2 diabetes?
  Cause of Type 2 diabetes: Either poor insulin metabolism in the body (esp. muscles), or reduced pancreas insulin production, or both.
  Causes of Type 2 diabetes: When type 2 diabetes is diagnosed, the pancreas is usually producing enough insulin, but, for unknown reasons, the body cannot use the insulin effectively, a condition called insulin resistance. After several years, insulin production decreases. The result is the same as for type 1 diabetes--glucose builds up in the blood and the body cannot make efficient use of its main source of fuel. 2
  Causes of Type 2 diabetes: see causes of Type 2 diabetes
  Risk factors for Type 2 diabetes: see risk factors for Type 2 diabetes
What are the symptoms of Type 2 diabetes?
  Symptoms of Type 2 diabetes: see symptoms of Type 2 diabetes
How is it treated?
  Treatments for Type 2 diabetes: see treatments for Type 2 diabetes
  Prevention of Type 2 diabetes: see prevention of Type 2 diabetes
  Research for Type 2 diabetes: see research for Type 2 diabetes
Society issues for Type 2 diabetes
  Costs of Type 2 diabetes: DCCT researchers estimate that intensive management doubles the cost of managing diabetes because of increased visits to a health care professional and the need for more frequent blood testing at home. However, this cost is offset by the reduction in medical expenses related to long-term complications and by the improved quality of life of people with diabetes.3

Cost statistics for Type 2 diabetes: The following are statistics from various sources about costs and Type 2 diabetes:

  • Estimated lifetime cost for Type 2 diabetes is about $25,000 in Australia 1993-94 (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2003)
  • Estimated lifetime cost for Type 1 diabetes is about $190,000 in Australia 1993-94 (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2003)

  Hospitalization statistics for Type 2 diabetes: The following are statistics from various sources about hospitalizations and Type 2 diabetes:
  • 0.2% (25,174) of hospital consultant episodes were for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • 74% of hospital consultant episodes for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus required hospital admission in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • 55% of hospital consultant episodes for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus were for men in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • 45% of hospital consultant episodes for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus were for women in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • 57% of hospital consultant episodes for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus required emergency hospital admission in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • 14.9 days was the mean length of stay in hospitals for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • 7 days was the median length of stay in hospitals for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • 66 was the mean age of patients hospitalised for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • 29% of hospital consultant episodes for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus occurred in 15-59 year olds in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • 33% of hospital consultant episodes for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus occurred in people over 75 in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • 23% of hospital consultant episodes for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus were single day episodes in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • 0.36% (187,832) of hospital bed days were for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • Hospitalization statistics in Australia:
    • Hospitalisations for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus at public hospitals occurred in 8.7 people per 10,000 population in Australia 2001-02 (Australian Hospital Data, AIHW, Australia, 2001-02)
    • 9.5 days was the mean length of stay in public hospitals for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in Australia 2001-02 (Australian Hospital Data, AIHW, Australia, 2001-02)
  • Hospitalization statistics in Australia for public hospitals:
    • 0.05% (11) of hospital episodes for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in public hospitals occurred in males aged 5 to 14 years in Australia 2001-02 (Australian Hospital Data, AIHW, Australia, 2001-02)
    • 0.28% (58) of hospital episodes for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in public hospitals occurred in males aged 15 to 24 years in Australia 2001-02 (Australian Hospital Data, AIHW, Australia, 2001-02)
    • 1.17% (243) of hospital episodes for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in public hospitals occurred in males aged 25 to 34 years in Australia 2001-02 (Australian Hospital Data, AIHW, Australia, 2001-02)
    • 3.78% (783) of hospital episodes for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in public hospitals occurred in males aged 35 to 44 years in Australia 2001-02 (Australian Hospital Data, AIHW, Australia, 2001-02)
    • 11.43% (2,366) of hospital episodes for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in public hospitals occurred in males aged 45 to 54 years in Australia 2001-02 (Australian Hospital Data, AIHW, Australia, 2001-02)
    • 20.7% (4,286) of hospital episodes for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in public hospitals occurred in males aged 55 to 64 years in Australia 2001-02 (Australian Hospital Data, AIHW, Australia, 2001-02)
    • 30.3% (6,270) of hospital episodes for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in public hospitals occurred in males aged 65 to 74 years in Australia 2001-02 (Australian Hospital Data, AIHW, Australia, 2001-02)
    • 27% (5,581) of hospital episodes for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in public hospitals occurred in males aged 75 to 84 years in Australia 2001-02 (Australian Hospital Data, AIHW, Australia, 2001-02)
    • 5.3% (1,095) of hospital episodes for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in public hospitals occurred in males aged over 85 in Australia 2001-02 (Australian Hospital Data, AIHW, Australia, 2001-02)


Footnotes:
1. excerpt from Diabetes Statistics in the United States: NIDDK
2. excerpt from Diabetes Overview: NIDDK
3. excerpt from Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT): NIDDK

Last revision: April 10, 2003

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