Basic Summary for Type 1 diabetes


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Main name of condition: Type 1 diabetes
Other names or spellings: Type I diabetes, Juvenile Diabetes, Brittle Diabetes, Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus, IDDM, Ketosis-prone diabetes, Type 1 diabetes mellitus


What is Type 1 diabetes?
  Brief description of Type 1 diabetes: Severe insulin-treated diabetes typically occurring in young people.
  Parent types of Type 1 diabetes: Diabetes, Autoimmune diseases, Pancreas conditions, Adolescent conditions
  Organs Affected by Type 1 diabetes: pancreas
How many people get Type 1 diabetes?
  Prevalance of Type 1 diabetes: 1-in-800 (NIAID)
  Prevalance Rate of Type 1 diabetes: approx 1 in 800 or 0.12% or 340,000 people in USA [about data]
  Incidence (annual) of Type 1 diabetes: about 30,000 annual cases in the USA; about 40 per 10,0000 children
  Incidence Rate of Type 1 diabetes: approx 1 in 9,066 or 0.01% or 30,000 people in USA [about data]
  Prevalance of Type 1 diabetes: 1 out of 800 people in the United States.1
Who gets Type 1 diabetes?
  Patient Profile for Type 1 diabetes: Typically teenagers, but can range from infants to 30's (or perhaps later in life).
  Profile for Type 1 diabetes: Type 1 diabetes develops most often in children and young adults, but the disorder can appear at any age. 2 ... Type 1 diabetes occurs equally among males and females, but is more common in whites than in nonwhites. Data from the World Health Organization's Multinational Project for Childhood Diabetes indicate that type 1 diabetes is rare in most African, American Indian, and Asian populations. However, some northern European countries, including Finland and Sweden, have high rates of type 1 diabetes. The reasons for these differences are not known. 2 ... Type 1 diabetes mellitus is usually diagnosed before the age of 30 and may be diagnosed as early as the first month of life.1
  Gender Profile for Type 1 diabetes: Women 2:1 (NWHIC); other sources say males and females equally.
How serious is Type 1 diabetes?
  Prognosis of Type 1 diabetes: Good in the short-term, possibility of severe complications later in life.
  Prognosis of Type 1 diabetes: Diabetes is relatively easy to control with proper medical attention, and acute complications are increasingly rare. However, long-term complications such as disorders of the eye, kidney, circulatory system, and nerve fibers are common. If left untreated, diabetes can result in death. 3
  Complications of Type 1 diabetes: see complications of Type 1 diabetes
What causes Type 1 diabetes?
  Cause of Type 1 diabetes: Autoimmune attack against the pancreas's insulin-producing cells.
  Causes of Type 1 diabetes: Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease. An autoimmune disease results when the body's system for fighting infection (the immune system) turns against a part of the body. In diabetes, the immune system attacks the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas and destroys them. The pancreas then produces little or no insulin. Someone with type 1 diabetes needs to take insulin daily to live. 2
  Class of Condition for Type 1 diabetes: autoimmune
  Causes of Type 1 diabetes: see causes of Type 1 diabetes
  Risk factors for Type 1 diabetes: see risk factors for Type 1 diabetes
What are the symptoms of Type 1 diabetes?
  Symptoms of Type 1 diabetes: see symptoms of Type 1 diabetes
Can anyone else get Type 1 diabetes?
  Contagion of autoimmunity: generally not; see details in contagion of autoimmune diseases.
How is it treated?
  Treatments for Type 1 diabetes: see treatments for Type 1 diabetes
  Prevention of Type 1 diabetes: see prevention of Type 1 diabetes
  Research for Type 1 diabetes: see research for Type 1 diabetes
Society issues for Type 1 diabetes
  Costs of Type 1 diabetes: DCCT researchers estimate that intensive management doubles the cost of managing diabetes because of increased visits to a health care professional and the need for more frequent blood testing at home. However, this cost is offset by the reduction in medical expenses related to long-term complications and by the improved quality of life of people with diabetes.4

Cost statistics for Type 1 diabetes: The following are statistics from various sources about costs and Type 1 diabetes:

  • Estimated lifetime cost for Type 1 diabetes is about $190,000 in Australia 1993-94 (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2003)
  • Estimated lifetime cost for Type 2 diabetes is about $25,000 in Australia 1993-94 (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2003)

  Hospitalization statistics for Type 1 diabetes: The following are statistics from various sources about hospitalizations and Type 1 diabetes:
  • 0.26% (32,968) of hospital consultant episodes were for insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • 78% of hospital consultant episodes for insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus required hospital admission in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • 53% of hospital consultant episodes for insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus were for men in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • 47% of hospital consultant episodes for insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus were for women in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • 73% of hospital consultant episodes for insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus required emergency hospital admission in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • 7.7 days was the mean length of stay in hospitals for insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • 3 days was the median length of stay in hospitals for insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • 39 was the mean age of patients hospitalised for insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • 59% of hospital consultant episodes for insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus occurred in 15-59 year olds in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • 9% of hospital consultant episodes for insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus occurred in people over 75 in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • 15% of hospital consultant episodes for insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus were single day episodes in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • 0.29% (153,886) of hospital bed days were for insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)


Footnotes:
1. excerpt from Understanding Autoimmune Disease: NIAID
2. excerpt from Diabetes Overview: NIDDK
3. excerpt from Endocrine Diseases: NWHIC
4. excerpt from Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT): NIDDK

Last revision: April 10, 2003

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