Risk Factors for Cancer
|About risk factors: Risk factors for Cancer are factors that do not seem to be a direct cause of the disease, but seem to be associated in some way. Having a risk factor for Cancer makes the chances of getting a condition higher but does not always lead to Cancer. Also, the absence of any risk factors or having a protective factor does not necessarily guard you against getting Cancer. For general information and a list of risk factors, see the risk center.|
Risk factor list: The list of risk factors mentioned for Cancer in various sources includes:
- Risks depend on the specific type of cancer but some are common
- Cigar smoking
- Pipe smoking
- Chewing tobacco
- Ultraviolet (UV) radiation
- Radiation exposure
- Certain chemicals
- Hormone replacement therapy (HRT)
- Diethylstilbestrol (DES)
- Family history of cancer
- Previous history of cancer
Risk factors discussion: Long-term heavy drinking increases the risk of developing certain forms of cancer, especially cancer of the esophagus, mouth, throat, and voice box. Women are at slightly increased risk of developing breast cancer if they drink two or more drinks per day. Drinking may also increase the risk for developing cancer of the colon and rectum. 1
A number of factors that increase a person's chance of developing cancer have been identified. Many types of cancer are related to the use of tobacco, what people eat and drink, exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun, and, to a lesser extent, exposure to cancer-causing agents (carcinogens) in the environment and the workplace. Some people are more sensitive than others to factors that can cause cancer.
Still, most people who get cancer have none of the known risk factors. And most people who do have risk factors do not get the disease.
Some cancer risk factors can be avoided. Others, such as inherited factors, are unavoidable, but it may be helpful to be aware of them. People can help protect themselves by avoiding known risk factors whenever possible. They can also talk with their doctor about regular checkups and about whether cancer screening tests could be of benefit.
These are some of the factors that increase the likelihood of cancer:
Tobacco. Smoking tobacco, using smokeless tobacco, and being regularly exposed to environmental tobacco smoke are responsible for one-third of all cancer deaths in the United States each year. Tobacco use is the most preventable cause of death in this country.
Smoking accounts for more than 85 percent of all lung cancer deaths. For smokers, the risk of getting lung cancer increases with the amount of tobacco smoked each day, the number of years they have smoked, the type of tobacco product, and how deeply they inhale. Overall, for those who smoke one pack a day, the chance of getting lung cancer is about 10 times greater than for nonsmokers. Cigarette smokers are also more likely than nonsmokers to develop several other types of cancer, including oral cancer and cancers of the larynx, esophagus, pancreas, bladder, kidney, and cervix. Smoking may also increase the likelihood of developing cancers of the stomach, liver, prostate, colon, and rectum. The risk of cancer begins to decrease soon after a smoker quits, and the risk continues to decline gradually each year after quitting.
People who smoke cigars or pipes have a risk for cancers of the oral cavity that is similar to the risk for people who smoke cigarettes. Cigar smokers also have an increased chance of developing cancers of the lung, larynx, esophagus, and pancreas.
The use of smokeless tobacco (chewing tobacco and snuff) causes cancer of the mouth and throat. Precancerous conditions, tissue changes that may lead to cancer, often begin to go away after a person stops using smokeless tobacco.
Studies suggest that exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, also called secondhand smoke, increases the risk of lung cancer for nonsmokers.
People who use tobacco in any form and need help quitting may want to talk with their doctor, dentist, or other health professional, or join a smoking cessation group sponsored by a local hospital or voluntary organization. Information about finding such groups or programs is available from the Cancer Information Service (CIS) at 1-800-4-CANCER. CIS information specialists can send printed materials, and also can give suggestions about quitting that are tailored to a caller's needs.
Diet. Researchers are exploring how dietary factors play a role in the development of cancer. Some evidence suggests a link between a high-fat diet and certain cancers, such as cancers of the colon, uterus, and prostate. Being seriously overweight may be linked to breast cancer among older women and to cancers of the prostate, pancreas, uterus, colon, and ovary. On the other hand, some studies suggest that foods containing fiber and certain nutrients may help protect against some types of cancer.
People may be able to reduce their cancer risk by making healthy food choices. A well-balanced diet includes generous amounts of foods that are high in fiber, vitamins, and minerals, and low in fat. This includes eating lots of fruits and vegetables and more whole-grain breads and cereals every day, fewer eggs, and not as much high-fat meat, high-fat dairy products (such as whole milk, butter, and most cheeses), salad dressing, margarine, and cooking oil.
Most scientists think that making healthy food choices is more beneficial than taking vitamin and mineral supplements.
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation. UV radiation from the sun causes premature aging of the skin and skin damage that can lead to skin cancer. (Two types of ultraviolet radiation -- UVA and UVB -- are explained in the Dictionary.) Artificial sources of UV radiation, such as sunlamps and tanning booths, also can cause skin damage and probably an increased risk of skin cancer.
To help reduce the risk of skin cancer caused by UV radiation, it is best to reduce exposure to the midday sun (from 10 a.m. to 3 p.m.). Another simple rule is to avoid the sun when your shadow is shorter than you are.
Wearing a broad-brimmed hat, UV-absorbing sunglasses, long pants, and long sleeves offers protection. Many doctors believe that in addition to avoiding the sun and wearing protective clothing, wearing a sunscreen (especially one that reflects, absorbs, and/or scatters both types of ultraviolet radiation) may help prevent some forms of skin cancer. Sunscreens are rated in strength according to a sun protection factor (SPF). The higher the SPF, the more sunburn protection is provided. Sunscreens with an SPF of 12 through 29 are adequate for most people, but sunscreens are not a substitute for avoiding the sun and wearing protective clothing.
Alcohol. Heavy drinkers have an increased risk of cancers of the mouth, throat, esophagus, larynx, and liver. (People who smoke cigarettes and drink heavily have an especially high risk of getting these cancers.) Some studies suggest that even moderate drinking may slightly increase the risk of breast cancer.
Ionizing radiation. Cells may be damaged by ionizing radiation from x-ray procedures, radioactive substances, rays that enter the Earth's atmosphere from outer space, and other sources. In very high doses, ionizing radiation may cause cancer and other diseases. Studies of survivors of the atomic bomb in Japan show that ionizing radiation increases the risk of developing leukemia and cancers of the breast, thyroid, lung, stomach, and other organs.
Before 1950, x-rays were used to treat noncancerous conditions (such as an enlarged thymus, enlarged tonsils and adenoids, ringworm of the scalp, and acne) in children and young adults. Those who have received radiation therapy to the head and neck have a higher-than-average risk of developing thyroid cancer years later. People with a history of such treatments should report it to their doctor.
Radiation that patients receive as therapy for cancer can also damage normal cells. Patients may want to talk with their doctor about the effect of radiation treatment on their risk of a second cancer. This risk can depend on the patient's age at the time of treatment as well as on the part of the body that was treated.
X-rays used for diagnosis expose people to lower levels of radiation than x-rays used for therapy. The benefits nearly always outweigh the risks. However, repeated exposure could be harmful, so it is a good idea for people to talk with their doctor about the need for each x-ray and to ask about the use of shields to protect other parts of the body.
Chemicals and other substances. Being exposed to substances such as certain chemicals, metals, or pesticides can increase the risk of cancer. Asbestos, nickel, cadmium, uranium, radon, vinyl chloride, benzidene, and benzene are examples of well-known carcinogens. These may act alone or along with another carcinogen, such as cigarette smoke, to increase the risk of cancer. For example, inhaling asbestos fibers increases the risk of lung diseases, including cancer, and the cancer risk is especially high for asbestos workers who smoke. It is important to follow work and safety rules to avoid or minimize contact with dangerous materials.
Hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Doctors may recommend HRT, using either estrogen alone or estrogen in combination with progesterone, to control symptoms (such as hot flashes and vaginal dryness) that may occur during menopause. Studies have shown that the use of estrogen alone increases the risk of cancer of the uterus. Therefore, most doctors prescribe HRT that includes progesterone along with low doses of estrogen. Progesterone counteracts estrogen's harmful effect on the uterus by preventing overgrowth of the lining of the uterus; this overgrowth is associated with taking estrogen alone. (Estrogen alone may be prescribed for women who have had a hysterectomy, surgery to remove the uterus, and are, therefore, not at risk for cancer of the uterus.) Other studies show an increased risk of breast cancer among women who have used estrogen for a long time; and some research suggests that the risk might be higher among those who have used estrogen and progesterone together.
Researchers are still learning about the risks and benefits of taking HRT. A woman considering HRT should discuss these issues with her doctor.
Diethylstilbestrol (DES). DES is a synthetic form of estrogen that was used between the early 1940s and 1971. Some women took DES during pregnancy to prevent certain complications. Their DES-exposed daughters have an increased chance of developing abnormal cells (dysplasia) in the cervix and vagina. In addition, a rare type of vaginal and cervical cancer can occur in DES-exposed daughters. DES daughters should tell their doctor about their exposure. They should also have pelvic exams by a doctor familiar with conditions related to DES.
Women who took DES during pregnancy may have a slightly higher risk for developing breast cancer. These women should tell their doctor about their exposure. At this time, there does not appear to be an increased risk of breast cancer for daughters who were exposed to DES before birth. However, more studies are needed as these daughters enter the age range when breast cancer is more common.
There is evidence that DES-exposed sons may have testicular abnormalities, such as undescended or abnormally small testicles. The possible risk for testicular cancer in these men is under study.
Close relatives with certain types of cancer. Some types of cancer (including melanoma and cancers of the breast, ovary, prostate, and colon) tend to occur more often in some families than in the rest of the population. It is often unclear whether a pattern of cancer in a family is primarily due to heredity, factors in the family's environment or lifestyle, or just a matter of chance.
Researchers have learned that cancer is caused by changes (called mutations or alterations) in genes that control normal cell growth and cell death. Most cancer-causing gene changes are the result of factors in lifestyle or the environment. However, some alterations that may lead to cancer are inherited; that is, they are passed from parent to child. But having such an inherited gene alteration does not mean that the person is certain to develop cancer; it means that the risk of cancer is increased.
|Risk Factors Associated with Cancer
People who have any of the cancer risk factors listed above should talk with their doctor. The doctor may be able to suggest ways to reduce the risk and can recommend an appropriate schedule of checkups.2
Risks factors for Cancer: medical news summaries: The following medical news items are relevant to risk factors for Cancer:
- 17 substances added to America’s list of carcinogens
- Adenocarcinoma incidence is increasing dramatically
- Alcohol promotes growth of blood vessels supplying tumor
- Australian Medical Association wants health warnings placed on alcohol products
- Avocado constituents may fight prostate cancer cell growth
- BMI linked to increased risk of kidney cancer
- Breast cancer drug Femara superior to Tamoxifen
- Cancer deaths take over deaths caused by heart disease
- Celecoxib no longer allowed to be used as a cancer treatment
- Cervical cancer risk roughly doubled with passive smoking
- Chemical used in manufacture of some plastics may promote prostate cancer growth
- Childhood cancer linked to exposure to chemical emission
- Chip determines liver cancer prognosis following surgery
- Chronic stress may increase cancer risks
- Colorectal cancer risk reduced in women through calcium consumption
- Concerns over Celebrex use mounting
- DASH diet alleviates many health problems
- Diabetes and sugar level linked to risk of cancer death
- Doubts over the real cause of depression
- Fairfield County Weekly
- Government advisors advise of possible link between prostate cancer and pesticides
- Grey hair research may assist in development of melanoma cure
- Hair loss is common in females too
- High salt consumption can cause a range of health problems
- Hormone therapy associated with increased risk of ovarian cancer
- How much is really known about the safety of statins
- HRT may help men with prostate cancer without the negative side effects
- Lung cancer may be an inheritable conditon
- Magnesium has a preventative effect on type 2 diabetes
- New Dietary Guidelines support numerous research results
- Non-alcoholic beer may inhibit cancer
- Overweight men risk having their prostate cancer misdiagnosed
- Passive smoking during childhood increases risk of adult lung cancer
- Personalities do not affect cancer risk
- Pregnancy diet could increase the risk of cancer in offspring
- Promising drugs raise dilemma of whether benefits outweigh the risks
- Prostate cancer incidence increasing in Nigerian men
- Prostate cancer risk reduced in diabetics
- Prostate cancer risk reduced in patients with long term diabetes
- Researchers point out the high antioxidant level in peanuts
- Smoking can seriously affect vocal cords
- Smoking increases the risk of development of hereditary pancreatic cancer
- Soy, vitamin E and folate are essential for prevention of certain cancers
- Studies compare hysterectomy techniques
- Studies increasingly pointing to diet as a culprit for cancer
- Studies provide more information about relationship between diet and cancer
- Survivors of 911 may now be at risk of mesothelioma
- The effective breast cancer treatment, Femara, only subsidized for those with advanced cases of the disease
- The Oleic acid component of the olive oil used in the Mediterranean diet may be responsible for breast cancer prevention
- Zinc supplementation may prevent some cancers
1. excerpt from Alcohol What You Don't Know Can Harm You: NIAAA
2. excerpt from What You Need To Know About Cancer - An Overview: NCI
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